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Basic Facts
Country name conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
conventional short form: Afghanistan
local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Afghanestan
local short form: Afghanestan
former: Republic of Afghanistan
Gevernment typeIslamic republic
Capital name: Kabul
geographic coordinates: 34 31 N, 69 12 E
time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, with a gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bold Islamic inscription above
Currencyafghani (AFA)
Internet country code.af
Ports and terminalsKheyrabad, Shir Khan
Agriculture productsopium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins
Industriessmall-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper
Geography
LocationSouthern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran
Coordinates33 00 N, 65 00 E
ContinentAsia
Area total: 647,500 sq km
land: 647,500 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Boundaries total: 5,529 km
border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
Climatearid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Terrainmostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones
Natural hazardsdamaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts
People
Population31,056,997 (July 2006 est.)
Ethnic groupsPashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, other 4%
ReligionsSunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 19%, other 1%
LanguagesAfghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashtu (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

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