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Basic Facts
Country name conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form: Germany
local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form: Deutschland
former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich
Gevernment typefederal republic
Capital name: Berlin
geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold
Currencyeuro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Internet country code.de
Ports and terminalsBremen, Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Duisburg, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Mainz, Rostock, Wilhemshaven
Agriculture productspotatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry
Industriesamong the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles
Geography
LocationCentral Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Coordinates51 00 N, 9 00 E
ContinentEurope
Area total: 357,021 sq km
land: 349,223 sq km
water: 7,798 sq km
Boundaries total: 3,621 km
border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km
Coastline2,389 km
Climatetemperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
Terrainlowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Natural resourcescoal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land
Natural hazardsflooding
People
Population82,422,299 (July 2006 est.)
Ethnic groupsGerman 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)
ReligionsProtestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%
LanguagesGerman

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