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Basic Facts
Country name conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran
conventional short form: Iran
local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
local short form: Iran
former: Persia
Gevernment typetheocratic republic
Capital name: Tehran
geographic coordinates: 35 40 N, 51 26 E
time difference: UTC+3.5 (8.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah in the shape of a tulip, a symbol of martyrdom) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band
CurrencyIranian rial (IRR)
Internet country code.ir
Ports and terminalsAssaluyeh, Bushehr
Agriculture productswheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar
Industriespetroleum, petrochemicals, fertilizers, caustic soda, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), ferrous and non-ferrous metal fabrication, armaments
Geography
LocationMiddle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan
Coordinates32 00 N, 53 00 E
ContinentMiddle East
Area total: 1.648 million sq km
land: 1.636 million sq km
water: 12,000 sq km
Boundaries total: 5,440 km
border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km
Coastline2,440 km; note - Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)
Climatemostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
Terrainrugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes
People
Population68,688,433 (July 2006 est.)
Ethnic groupsPersian 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%
ReligionsShi'a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 9%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 2%
LanguagesPersian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%

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