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Basic Facts
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
Gevernment typeconstitutional republic
Capital name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Flag descriptionthree equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
Currencynuevo sol (PEN)
Internet country code.pe
Ports and terminalsCallao, Iquitos, Matarani, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas; note - Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Agriculture productsasparagus, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish, guinea pigs
Industriesmining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing
Geography
LocationWestern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Coordinates10 00 S, 76 00 W
ContinentSouth America
Area total: 1,285,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
Boundaries total: 7,461 km
border countries: Bolivia 1,075 km, Brazil 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Colombia 1,800 km, Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline2,414 km
Climatevaries from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Terrainwestern coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Natural resourcescopper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Natural hazardsearthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
People
Population28,302,603 (July 2006 est.)
Ethnic groupsAmerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
ReligionsRoman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3% (2003 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages

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