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Basic Facts
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
Gevernment typerepublican parliamentary democracy
Capital name: Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Flag descriptionred with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening
CurrencyTurkish lira (YTL); old Turkish lira (TRL) before 1 January 2005
Internet country code.tr
Ports and terminalsAliaga, Ambarli, Eregli, Haydarpasa, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Toros
Agriculture productstobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
Industriestextiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Geography
LocationSoutheastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Coordinates39 00 N, 35 00 E
ContinentMiddle East
Area total: 780,580 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km
Boundaries total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
Coastline7,200 km
Climatetemperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Terrainhigh central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Natural hazardssevere earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
People
Population70,413,958 (July 2006 est.)
Ethnic groupsTurkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)
ReligionsMuslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
LanguagesTurkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli (or Zaza), Azeri, Kabardian
note: there is also a substantial Gagauz population in the Europe part of Turkey

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