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Basic Facts
Country name conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turkmenistan
local long form: none
local short form: Turkmenistan
former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
Gevernment typerepublic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Capital name: Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)
geographic coordinates: 37 57 N, 58 23 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Flag descriptiongreen field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five tribal guls (designs used in producing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches similar to the olive branches on the UN flag; a white crescent moon representing Islam with five white stars representing the regions or velayats of Turkmenistan appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe
CurrencyTurkmen manat (TMM)
Internet country code.tm
Ports and terminalsTurkmenbasy
Agriculture productscotton, grain; livestock
Industriesnatural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Geography
LocationCentral Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
Coordinates40 00 N, 60 00 E
ContinentAsia
Area total: 488,100 sq km
land: 488,100 sq km
water: NEGL
Boundaries total: 3,736 km
border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km
Coastline0 km; note - Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Climatesubtropical desert
Terrainflat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, sulfur, salt
Natural hazardsNA
People
Population5,042,920 (July 2006 est.)
Ethnic groupsTurkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003)
ReligionsMuslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
LanguagesTurkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

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