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Basic Facts
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Iraq
conventional short form: Iraq
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah
local short form: Al Iraq
Gevernment typeparliamentary democracy
Capital name: Baghdad
geographic coordinates: 33 21 N, 44 25 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins 1 April; ends 1 October
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script, Yemen, which has a plain white band, and that of Egypt which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band; design is based upon the Arab Liberation colors
CurrencyNew Iraqi dinar (NID) as of 22 January 2004
Internet country
Ports and terminalsAl Basrah, Khawr az Zubayr, Umm Qasr
Agriculture productswheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry
Industriespetroleum, chemicals, textiles, leather, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing
LocationMiddle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait
Coordinates33 00 N, 44 00 E
ContinentMiddle East
Area total: 437,072 sq km
land: 432,162 sq km
water: 4,910 sq km
Boundaries total: 3,650 km
border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 352 km
Coastline58 km
Climatemostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq
Terrainmostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Natural hazardsdust storms, sandstorms, floods
Population26,783,383 (July 2006 est.)
Ethnic groupsArab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
ReligionsMuslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
LanguagesArabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian

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